RPi Hardware Basic Setup
Buying Guide - for advice on buying the Raspberry Pi.
SD Card Setup - for information on how to prepare the SD Card used to boot your Raspberry Pi.
Basic Setup - for help with buying / selecting other hardware and setting it up.
Beginners Guide - you are up and running, now what can you do?
Latest RPi 4 Topics - Recent topics on Raspberry Pi 4 and the Pi OS
Advanced Setup - for more extensive information on setting up.
Trouble Shooting - some things to check if things don't work as expected.
Typical Hardware You Will Need
You may have decided to buy a Raspberry Pi because you think it is great, it helps if you have an idea of what you want to do with it. You buy the board, but you will need some extra parts to be able to use it. Some of those parts you may have around so you can use them, some you might buy that others have given away or sold, and some you buy yourself. Consider what you buy; you might get very little benefit from an expensive item over a cheap one.
The Raspberry Pi can be used in the conventional computer configuration, with a keyboard, mouse and display, or in a "headless" configuration where it is available on a network and is controlled from another computer on that network. You can add a range of additional peripherals to the Raspberry Pi; the first section of this page covers setting up the Raspberry Pi with the minimum number of peripherals to make sure that you can get it working. Additional peripherals are covered in the second section.
|Raspberry Pi board||Yes||Yes|
|SD Card + OS||Yes||Yes|
|USB mouse||If using a GUI desktop||No|
|Network cable||If network / Internet||Not possible if Model A; Yes if not Wi-Fi|
|Wi-Fi USB adapter||If network / Internet||If model A, Yes; Yes if not cabled|
|Powered USB hub||If High Power USB device||No|
|Another PC / laptop, etc.||No||Yes|
IMPORTANT For USB devices other than a mouse and a simple wired keyboard (for USB devices drawing more than 100 mA) a powered USB hub is strongly recommended. A technical discussion as to why can be found here. Specifically the Raspberry Pi's built in USB hub is designed only for "single current unit" USB devices. Note that when using Revision 2 (or later) boards the problem has been mitigated somewhat with the removal of the USB polyfuses, still due to the limited current the Raspberry Pi can provide to USB devices, due to its main polyfuse, its still recommended to use a hub for all USB peripherals requiring more than 100 mA.
Other, optional equipment includes:
- SD card reader - if you need to prepare your own SD card
- Power Supply Switch - if you want an easy way to cycle power
You can pick up various set-up kits from ModMyPi
The unit uses a Micro USB connection to power itself (only the power pins are connected - so it will not transfer data over this connection). A standard modern phone charger with a micro-USB connector will do, but needs to produce at least 700 mA at 5 volts (Model B). Check your power supply's ratings carefully, and beware cheap knock-offs!.
Pi Specific power supplies
A few power supplies have been manufactured specially for the Raspberry Pi to account for voltage drop due to the high current draw of the Raspberry Pi when compared to typical (phone charging, etc.) duties.
- A 5 V 2 A supply available in UK, EU and USA varieties from The Pi Hut
- A 5 V 2 A supply designed specifically for use with the Raspberry Pi is also available from ModMyPi
You can alternatively use a range of other power sources (assuming they are able to provide enough current ~700 mA):
- Computer USB Port or powered USB hub (will depend on power output)
- Special wall warts with USB ports
- Mobile Phone Backup Battery (will depend on power output) (in theory - needs confirmation)
- Modern TV with built-in USB (for example, it has been shown to work with the Sony KDL-40HX723 and KDL-55NX813)
- Internet Routers with USB Ports (the BT Home Hub 3 seems to run the Raspberry Pi nicely)
To use the above, you'll need a USB A 'male' to USB micro 'male' cable - these are often shipped as data cables with mobile phones, So you should have a lot. Unless you use iPhones and only iPhones.
Additionally, the Raspberry Pi does not have the functionality of an on/off switch like traditionally seen on a PC. Pi Supply have an add on board for sale that introduces this functionality, allowing you to easily manage power on your Raspberry Pi, without wearing out your back, or the micro-USB socket on the Raspberry Pi. It also includes a safe shutdown switch to avoid corruption of your SD card. (Also, you can use the built in switch in your power outlet if you have it.)
For detailed information about power requirements see Raspberry Pi Hardware - Power.
Prepared Operating System SD Card
The Raspberry Pi has no internal storage or built-in boot code, so it requires an SD-Card that is set up to boot the Raspberry Pi. You should look at the RPi Easy SD Card Setup page for instructions about buying a preinstalled card or creating your own loaded SD Card. A USB Device can take over after the initial bootup. (BerryBoot)
Keyboard & Mouse
Most standard USB keyboards and mice will work with the Raspberry Pi. Wireless keyboard/mice should also function, and only require a single USB port for an RF dongle. In order to use a Bluetooth keyboard or mouse you would need to use a Bluetooth dongle, which again uses a single port.
Remember that the Model A has a single USB port, the Model B only has two (typically a keyboard and mouse will use a USB port each), and the Model B+ and Raspberry Pi 2 have 4 - see USB Hub below.
Various wired and wireless keyboards/mice can be purchased from ModMyPi
To check your mouse and keyboard are compatible with Linux, see Raspberry Pi Verified Peripherals.
There are two connection options for the Raspberry Pi display, HDMI (high definition) and composite (low definition).
- HD TVs and most LCD Monitors can be connected using a standard HDMI cable. (A cable with a "male"/"plug" connection on the Raspberry Pi end and whatever your display uses on the other end). HDMI versions 1.3 and 1.4 are supported, and a version 1.4 cable is recommended. The Raspberry Pi outputs audio and video via HDMI, but does not have an HDMI input.
- Most older TVs can be connected using composite (a yellow-to-yellow cable). PAL and NTSC TVs are supported. Note that the RCA output is composite video, not RF, so it cannot be connected directly to the antenna input of a TV. You need to connected it to the yellow video input connector, or to the SCART input using a RCA to SCART plug (adapter). Note that on the model A+ and B+ Raspberry Pi's the composite video output has been combined with the audio connector so you will need a special cable to allow access to the video output. See http://www.raspberrypi-spy.co.uk/2014/07/raspberry-pi-model-b-3-5mm-audiovideo-jack/ for details of the exact cable required.
It is possible to use a monitor with a DVI input by using an HDMI to DVI adapter or adapter cable. The Raspberry Pi can also be connected to a display with a VGA input through the use of an HDMI to VGA converter. Note however that a simple HDMI to VGA cable will not work - it needs to be an "active" converter.
The Raspberry Pi will normally output sound on either the HDMI connection or the 3.5 mm analogue output. You can send the sound output from the analogue output of the Raspberry Pi to your TV using a cable that adapts from 3.5 mm TRS to double (red and white) RCA connectors. These red and white can go into the red and white RCA plug inputs of a TV, or a stereo set, or to the above mentioned RCA to SCART plug. On the model A+ and B+ Raspberry Pi's you will need a special TRRS cable to connect the audio if you also want access to the composite video output. A 3.5 mm TRS to dual (red and white) RCA cable will work for the audio if you don't need the composite video output. See http://www.raspberrypi-spy.co.uk/2014/07/raspberry-pi-model-b-3-5mm-audiovideo-jack/ for details of the exact cable required. Another option for analogue audio is to connect the 3.5 mm jackplug to an amplified speakerset. Do not connect the 3.5 mm jack directly to a headset, as the 3.5 mm audio output isn't suitable to drive headsets, only amplifier inputs. Attaching a low impedance load, (such as a headset) to the stereo audio output may lead to distorted sound.
Using an HDMI to DVI-D (digital) adaptor plus a DVI to VGA adaptor will not work. HDMI does not supply the DVI-A (analogue) needed to convert to VGA - converting an HDMI or DVI-D source to VGA (or component) needs an active converter. (It can work out cheaper to buy a new monitor). Problems have been reported with converters if the power supply is not adequate and the converter is not powered from its own power supply.
The Pi Hut offer three adapters that will allow the Raspberry Pi to be used with multiple monitor formats
For detailed information see RPi Screens.
You will probably need a number of cables in order to connect your Raspberry Pi up.
- Micro-B USB Power Cable (see above) picture. This has to be a high quality one.
- HDMI-A picture or Composite cable picture, plus DVI adaptor picture or SCART adaptor picture if required, to connect your Raspberry Pi to the Display/Monitor/TV of your choice.
- Audio cable picture, this is not needed if you use a HDMI TV/monitor.
- Ethernet/LAN Cable (see below) picture.
The price you pay for an HDMI cable can vary wildly and under most circumstances a low-cost cable from a reputable online or local supplier will be absolutely fine, but the definition of what constitutes 'low cost' can vary wildly - for example, in the UK, a 1 m cable can be purchased for anything between £1 and £24.99. If, however, you want to drive a display some distance from the Raspberry Pi (say greater than the ubiquitous 1.8 m/6 ft), or you are using a video switch to share a display between several devices, then higher quality cables might be wise - for example, a pair of 1 m HDMI cables purchased in a UK 'pound shop' worked fine when directly connected between the Raspberry Pi and a display, but would not give a stable picture when used via an HDMI switch. Replacing the £1 1 m cable with a 1.5 m cable bought online for £1.30 fixed the problem. For more insight: Why you don't need to spend more than £2 on an HDMI cable
Network / Internet Connectivity
This may be an Ethernet/LAN cable (standard RJ45 connector) or a USB Wi-Fi adaptor. The Raspberry Pi Ethernet port is auto-sensing which means that it may be connected to a router or directly to another computer (without the need for a crossover cable).
Support for USB Wi-Fi adaptors will vary - see Raspberry Pi Verified Peripherals.
Note: If a Netgear router has a blank in the fourth box of the subnet mask, raspbian will interpret that as a 255, not as a '0' like Ubuntu. This will give you a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 and a useless network connection. Changing the router's setting to put a '0' in the last field and reinitializing the network will fix this.
In order to connect additional devices to the Raspberry Pi, you may want to obtain a USB Hub, which will allow multiple devices to be used.
It is recommended that a powered hub is used - this will provide any additional power to the devices without affecting the Raspberry Pi itself. The USB ports are fused at about 140 mA each without an additional external power source. This is not enough to power a hard drive, and you may even have trouble powering wireless adapters and other peripherals. There is enough current out there, however, for mice and most keyboards. (see Raspberry Pi Hardware - Power section).
USB version 2.0 is recommended. USB version 1.1 is fine for keyboards and mice, but may not be fast enough for other accessories.
Various USB Hubs available from ModMyPi
Real Time Clock
Laptops and computers keep time when the power is off by using a pre-installed, battery powered 'Real Time Clock' (RTC). However, this Real Time Clock module is not included with the Raspberry Pi. To keep time, the Raspberry Pi updates the date and time automatically over the Internet via Ethernet or Wi-Fi. For projects which have no Internet connection, you may want to add a low cost battery powered RTC to help your Raspberry Pi keep time!
Afterthought Software have released a 'Plug and Play' Real Time Clock designed specifically for the Raspberry Pi which, unlike other RTC's available, plugs directly in to the Raspberry Pi's GPIO Ports. The unit, and others, are available from ModMyPi and comes complete with an easy to follow Installation Guide.
If you need to install the Operating System on your own SD Card you will need another PC, Laptop or Mac to do so (or get a friend or local group to do it for you). If you are running headless, you also need one, though for a lot of uses (but not all) you can use a tablet or smart phone. This does include another Raspberry Pi!
You can use the diagram to connect everything together using the following instructions:
- Plug the SD Card loaded with the Operating System into the Raspberry Pi.
- If required, plug the USB keyboard and mouse into the Raspberry Pi, perhaps via a USB Hub. Connect the Hub to power, if necessary.
- If required, plug the video cable into the display and into the Raspberry Pi.
- Plug in your Network cable, or Wi-Fi dongle, if required.
- Ensure that your USB Hub (if any) and display are working.
- With your screen on, plug the other end of the power source into the Raspberry Pi.
- Plug the power source into the main socket, and switch it on.
- If connected to a display, the Raspberry Pi should boot up and display messages on the screen.
- If running headless, it should boot up. When the leds have stopped flashing, connect to the Raspberry Pi from the remote computer. Whether this works will depend on the operating system you are using; the Raspian Linux operating system is configured to allow SSH connections by default.
It is always recommended to connect the MicroUSB Power to the unit last (while most connections can be made live, it is best practice to connect items such as displays and other connections with the power turned off).
If you use both a R-PI power supply and a powered hub, its recommended you connect them to the same switched power bar, and use the switch on the power bar to switch off both the R-PI and hub at the exact same time.
Also, always shutdown using the software shutdown function, not by pulling the plug. When not using a GUI, (with a GUI use the GUI command) you can use the command "sudo halt -h", and power off when all the LED's on the board (except the power LED) go off. This is especially important the first time you boot, as in the process the R-PI modifies the content of the SD-card, without a clean shutdown the contents of the card may be damaged.
The Raspberry Pi may take a long time to boot when powered-on for the first time, so be patient, and cleanly shutdown afterwards, as described above!
You may decide you want to use various other devices with your Raspberry Pi, such as flash drives/portable hard drives, speakers, etc.
For detailed information see Raspberry Pi Verified Peripherals.
Not a vital accessory for your Raspberry Pi, but will help to reduce the CPU's temperature whilst under load. Available from The Pi Hut's Raspberry Pi Store, ModMyPi (with lots of tips and tricks for reducing temperature in the reviews)
Since the Raspberry Pi is supplied without a case, it will be important to ensure that you do not use it in places where it will come into contact with conductive metal or liquids, unless suitably protected. Some form of case should be considered, and there is a RPi case thread on the forum. Cases are also available from The Pi Hut's Raspberry Pi Store,ModMyPi's Raspberry Pi Shop and MobileApp Systems.
For detailed information see RPi Cases.
SD card reader
You may need an SD card reader to prepare an SD card, or read a second one, both for the Raspberry Pi or the other computer if it does not have an integral SD card reader.
ModMyPi's Raspberry Pi Shop stocks a low cost (99p) SD Card Reader.
Expansion & Low Level Peripherals
If you plan on making use of the low level interfaces available on the Raspberry Pi, then ensure you have suitable header pins for the GPIO (and if required JTAG) suitable for your needs.
Also if you have a particular low-level project in mind, then ensure you design in suitable protection circuits to keep your Raspberry Pi safe (details will be made available within the Raspberry Pi Projects, Guides & Tutorials section).
ModMyPi offer a huge range of expansions boards.
For detailed information see Raspberry Pi Low-level Peripherals.